Messolonghi first mentioned in written sources in the 16th century. In 1700 was under Venetian rule and then under Turkish. In the rebellion of 1770 (Orlofika) which took part Mesologi, looted and destroyed. After 1774 it was restructured commercial and naval. From 1804-1820 he was under the dominion of Ali Pasha of Ioannina. He took part in the Greek revolution and sustained two sieges (1822 and 1825-26). The second siege followed the historic exodus of Missolonghi (04/10/1826) remained in the Turkish rule until 11/5/1829.In 1837 declared holy city. Bombed repeatedly during the outbreak of war and suffered considerable damage.
The poet Dionysios Solomos, named Mesologi "Alonaki of freedom" for the sacrifice of the defenders of the holocaust of Kapsalis and the heroic exit of April 10, 1826.Messolonghi passed into history as a City of Heroes.
First Stage of the siege: From April to December 1825 took the first stage of siege, and during this time the Turks came within a few tens of meters from the wall. A strong attack Kioutachis on July 21, 1825 failed and three days later a Greek night counterattack caused severe losses in the Turkish camp. Meanwhile Greek ships had split the sea blockade and had supplied the besieged with food and ammunition, while in early August defending the Messolongi reinforced by 1500 more men. After the abortive attacks Kioutahis withdrew the surrounding foothills and occasionally bombed the city, but the stranglehold of the first month.
Second Stage of Siege: The December 1825 began the second phase of the siege when Ibrahim arrived in Mesologi strong force (10,000 men), determined to understand. After the rejection by the beleaguered his proposal to surrender, the siege was intensified by the besieged in February pushed by the attacks of the Egyptians and from hunger. The islands of the lagoon, bastions of Messolongi fell into enemy hands, except Kleisova, the Greek victory was triumphant. The besieged in vain waited for their support of Nafplio, and the effort of the Greek fleet to the siege from the sea proved impossible. The only solution in these circumstances that continually got worse, left exit.
The besieged, desperate now, took the final decision to try out the night of April 10th to the 11th, Palm Sunday, and alerted the Greeks Dervekistas camp to try to bring distraction to the Turks. They decided to kill all the prisoners and the women not to fall into Turkish hands. While the first decision was the second prevented the bishop Rogon Joseph. Patients and wounded again in most houses and forts there to die fighting .To noon on April 10 plan was drawn up and the dusk began to gather all the identified locations. When the 6.30 was heard above the barrage in Libra's Greek subsidiary body, which had arrived from Dervestika. When nightfall most of the guards had gone out of town and waited for the signal to start. But their plan was betrayed and Turks and Egyptians began to beat with dense fire cannons and rifles. Eventually, the Greeks decided to move 'men rushed the first two bodies with the cutlass and swords upon the enemy lines. No force was capable of restraining the torrent of that desperate. Each of them looking to overthrow the obstacles that lie ahead and pass. At that moment there was the third body, the women's voice "backwards, backwards, foolish child!" and separated some of the first two bodies. The conflict was slaughterous. Greeks upset anyone get ahead and go, leaving behind many dead. The course was accompanied by two explosions the city. The first explosion of sewer and the other by the explosion of gunpowder in the heroic Christos Kapsalis. The Greeks had lost and hidden in various hills and canyons Albanians. Yet faced with firmness the invisible enemy.
He begins to looks the Palm Sunday, when the battle ceased. Up there alone, on top of Libra, able to breathe a little freely. Of the 3000 soldiers who took part in the exit, only 1300 survived. the others were killed in 1700 fighting the exit. Of the women, only 13 survived Souli and children three or four. The losses were estimated at Turks and Egyptians 5000.
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